Thursday, June 4, 2015

How Did the Early Christians Celebrate the Last Supper?

Early Christian painting of Eucharist
I recently got into an online discussion about the Catholic faith with fellow Christians who are concerned that Catholics ask saints to pray for them.  This discussion led to a further discussion about the Last Supper and the Eucharist.  These discussions arose following my most recent posting of the eye-witness account of Justin Martyr's witness to the Christian faith and his subsequent martyrdom that occurred around 155 AD. 

It is amazing that we have access to what the early Church believed and what they witnessed to in historical documents that have preserved for us to this day.  I share these writings with all Christians in hope that the apologetics they provide will be of benefit to all those who seek to understand how the early Church first worshipped and believed. 

But first, regarding our prayers to early Christians martyrs, I asked:  

Do you ask your friends to pray for you? 

If we die with Christ, we will never die, but live forever.  This is our Christian faith. 
When we ask a holy man who died for our faith to pray for us, we do so because he is alive in heaven and he is our friend.  
"The prayer of a righteous person availeth much."  
Yes, Jesus is the only Way to the Father, as He is the Way, the Truth and the Life,  but He does not begrudge us from asking each other to pray for us.  He wants us to pray for one another. And yes, I prayed to Jesus when I prayed Lord, have mercy on us!  May He still find faith when He returns!

I wonder did you have a chance to read Justin's words of witness to Christ? They are bold and powerful and they proclaim the faith of the early Church. This is why I posted what I did. I'm sorry that it is concerning for you for me to ask Justin to pray for us. Would you ask a fellow Christian who was persecuted for their faith to pray for you and help you to withstand the world's persecution? 
I fear you mistake our request for prayers as something that it is not.  


Regarding your other comments: 

If we read the martyr Justin's writings we also read what the earliest Christians believed about the Last Supper and Jesus' words in the Gospel of John, where Jesus proclaims: 

"Let me solemnly tell you, if you do not eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. He who feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has life eternal, and I will raise him up on the last day.  For my flesh is real food and my blood real drink.  The man who feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me, and I in him.  Just as the Father who has life sent me and I have life because of the Father, so the man who feeds on me will have life because of me"  John 6: 53-57. 

Justin writes in his First Apology (written some time before 150 AD) about how Jesus' Words at the Last Supper were understood and celebrated in the early Church. Jesus said as He was celebrating the Passover on the night before He died: 

"Take and eat it... this is my body.... All of you must drink this ... for this is my blood, the blood of the covenant,  to be poured out for the forgiveness of sins." Mt. 26:26-28, see also Mk 14:22-24; Lk 22: 14-20; 1 Cor. 11: 23-29.  

Reflecting upon these words, and filled with the power of the Holy Spirit, the apostles and the earliest Church believed this (I quote Justin): 

"We do not consume the eucharistic bread and wine as if it were ordinary food and drink, for we have been taught that as Jesus Christ our Savior became a man of flesh and blood by the power of the Word of God, so also the food that our flesh and blood assimilates for its nourishment becomes the flesh and blood of the incarnate Jesus by the power of his own words contained in the prayer of thanksgiving.
The apostles, in their recollections, which are called gospels, handed down to us what Jesus commanded them to do. They tell us that he took bread, gave thanks and said: Do this in memory of me. This is my body. In the same way he took the cup, he gave thanks and said: This is my blood. The Lord gave this command to them alone. Ever since then we have constantly reminded one another of these things. The rich among us help the poor and we are always united. For all that we receive we praise the Creator of the universe through his Son Jesus Christ and through the Holy Spirit.
On Sunday we have a common assembly of all our members, whether they live in the city or the outlying districts. The recollections of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as there is time. When the reader has finished, the president of the assembly speaks to us; he urges everyone to imitate the examples of virtue we have heard in the readings. Then we all stand up together and pray.
On the conclusion of our prayer, bread and wine and water are brought forward. The president offers prayers and gives thanks to the best of his ability, and the people give assent by saying, “Amen”. The eucharist is distributed, everyone present communicates, and the deacons take it to those who are absent.
The wealthy, if they wish, may make a contribution, and they themselves decide the amount. The collection is placed in the custody of the president, who uses it to help the orphans and widows and all who for any reason are in distress, whether because they are sick, in prison, or away from home. In a word, he takes care of all who are in need.
We hold our common assembly on Sunday because it is the first day of the week, the day on which God put darkness and chaos to flight and created the world, and because on that same day our savior Jesus Christ rose from the dead. For he was crucified on Friday and on Sunday he appeared to his apostles and disciples and taught them the things that we have passed on for your consideration."(end quote).


I write this because I long for all Christians to understand each other and be united, remembering that on the night before Jesus died, He prayed fervently that WE BE ONE AS HE AND THE FATHER ARE ONE! 

He prayed: 
“My prayer is not for them alone. I pray also for those who will believe in me through their message, that all of them may be one, Father, just as you are in me and I am in you. May they also be in us so that the world may believe that you have sent me. I have given them the glory that you gave me, that they may be one as we are one I in them and you in me—so that they may be brought to complete unity. Then the world will know that you sent me and have loved them even as you have loved me.Father, I want those you have given me to be with me where I am, and to see my glory, the glory you have given me because you loved me before the creation of the world.Righteous Father, though the world does not know you, I know you, and they know that you have sent me. I have made you known to them, and will continue to make you known in order that the love you have for me may be in them and that I myself may be in them.” (John 17:20-16)
This is my prayer as well!

That is why I pray for Christian unity and for all Catholics to be ever ready to give an account for the hope they have in Christ Jesus -- remembering the words of St. Catherine of Siena,

"If you are what you are meant to be, you will set the world on fire!"

Through the power of the Holy Spirit, and through the love of the Father and the Son, let us pray:
Come, Blessed Trinity! Set the world on fire with Your Love and Truth! May all Christians know and believe in the Eucharist, God's love, ALIVE among us!

"This (Blessed) Sacrament above all inflames the soul with divine love. "God is love" (1 Jn 3:8). And He is the fire which consumes in our hearts all earthly affections: "The Lord thy God is a consuming fire" (Dt 3:24). Now the Son of God came precisely to kindle this fire of love: "I am come to cast fire in the earth"; and He added that He did not desire other that to see ignited this holy fire in our hearts: "and what will I, but that it be kindled?"(Lk 12:49). And oh what flames of divine love Jesus Christ ignites in each one who devoutly receives Him in this Sacrament!"(Saint Alphonsus Liguori)

There are literally millions of quotes, testimonies and inspiring stories to share regarding our faith in the Eucharist.  

Can you give a testimony of your faith in the Eucharist?

If you have a reason for your hope that has inspired you and others to grow in your faith and in the Eucharist, can you take a moment to share one below?  Whatever you share will be a gift of love for those reading them!

God love you and may you and your family greatly celebrate Corpus Christi not only on one day, but every day and at every Mass!

© Janet Moore 2015. All Rights Reserved. 
Photo Credit: Public Domain

Monday, June 1, 2015

The Powerful Witness of St. Justin Martyr

In the midst of such evil and terrorism, and knowing the great numbers of martyrdoms taking place throughout the world,  it is edifying for me to read about the bravery and the faith of the martyrs of the early Church. May the witness of Justin and the accounting of his words, help us grow in courage and strength and fear of the Lord. 

Justin Martyr, pray for us!  Help us to remain strong and steadfast in our faith even in the midst of persecution and death.  Lord have mercy on us!  Help us to grow in faith and be steadfast in hope, so that you will find faith on the earth when you return!

From the Acts of the martyrdom of Saint Justin and his companion saints
I have accepted the true doctrines of the Christians

The saints were seized and brought before the prefect of Rome, whose name was Rusticus. As they stood before the judgment seat, Rusticus the prefect said to Justin: “Above all, have faith in the gods and obey the emperors.” Justin said: “We cannot be accused or condemned for obeying the commands of our Savior, Jesus Christ.”

Rusticus said: “What system of teaching do you profess?” Justin said: “I have tried to learn about every system, but I have accepted the true doctrines of the Christians, though these are not approved by those who are held fast by error.”
The prefect Rusticus said: “Are those doctrines approved by you, wretch that you are?” Justin said: “Yes, for I follow them with their correct teaching.”
The prefect Rusticus said: “What sort of teaching is that?” Justin said: “Worship the God of the Christians. We hold him to be from the beginning the one creator and maker of the whole creation, of things seen and things unseen. We worship also the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God. He was foretold by the prophets as the future herald of salvation for the human race and the teacher of distinguished disciples. For myself, since I am a human being, I consider that what I say is insignificant in comparison with his infinite godhead. I acknowledge the existence of a prophetic power, for the one I have just spoken of as the Son of God was the subject of prophecy. I know that the prophets were inspired from above when they spoke of his coming among men.”
Rusticus said: “You are a Christian, then?” Justin said: “Yes, I am a Christian.” The prefect said to Justin: “You are called a learned man and think that you know what is true teaching. Listen: if you were scourged and beheaded, are you convinced that you would go up to heaven?” Justin said: “I hope that I shall enter God’s house if I suffer that way. For I know that God’s favor is stored up until the end of the whole world for all who have lived good lives.”
The prefect Rusticus said: “Do you have an idea that you will go up to heaven to receive some suitable rewards?” Justin said: “It is not an idea that I have; it is something I know well and hold to be most certain.”
The prefect Rusticus said: “Now let us come to the point at issue, which is necessary and urgent. Gather round then and with one accord offer sacrifice to the gods.” Justin said: “No one who is right thinking stoops from true worship to false worship.”
The prefect Rusticus said: “If you do not do as you are commanded you will be tortured without mercy.” Justin said: “We hope to suffer torment for the sake of our Lord Jesus Christ, and so be saved. For this will bring us salvation and confidence as we stand before the more terrible and universal judgment-seat of our Lord and Savior.”
In the same way the other martyrs also said: “Do what you will. We are Christians; we do not offer sacrifice to idols.”
The prefect Rusticus pronounced sentence, saying: “Let those who have refused to sacrifice to the gods and to obey the command of the emperor be scourged and led away to suffer capital punishment according to the ruling of the laws.” Glorifying God, the holy martyrs went out to the accustomed place. They were beheaded, and so fulfilled their witness of martyrdom in confessing their faith in their Savior.

RESPONSORY Acts 20:21, 24; Romans 1:16
I have preached faith in our Lord Jesus Christ and now I fear no danger.
 I do not count my life more precious than my work, which is to finish my course, the task of preaching and proclaiming the good news of God’s grace.

I am not ashamed of the Gospel, for it is God’s power at work, bringing salvation to all who believe in it, Jew first and then Greek.
 I do not count my life more precious than my work, which is to finish my course, the task of preaching and proclaiming the good news of God’s grace.

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